Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: summary statement from the fourth international workshop. Bilezikian JP 1, Brandi ML, Eastell R, Silverberg SJ, Udelsman R, Marcocci C, Potts JT Jr. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3561-9.
In view of new findings since the last International Workshop on the Management of Asymptomatic PHPT, guidelines for management have been revised. The revised guidelines include: 1) recommendations for more extensive evaluation of the skeletal and renal systems; 2) skeletal and/or renal involvement as determined by further evaluation to become part of the guidelines for surgery; and 3) more specific guidelines for monitoring those who do not meet guidelines for parathyroid surgery.
Diagnosis of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: proceedings of the fourth international workshop. Eastell R 1, Brandi ML, Costa AG, D'Amour P, Shoback DM, Thakker RV. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3570-9
We conclude that: 1) reference ranges should be established for serum PTH in vitamin D-replete healthy individuals; 2) second- and third-generation PTH assays are both helpful in the diagnosis of PHPT; 3) normocalcemic PHPT is a variant of the more common presentation of PHPT with hypercalcemia; 4) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations should be measured and, if vitamin D insufficiency is present, it should be treated as part of any management course; 5) genetic testing has the potential to be useful in the differential diagnosis of familial hyperparathyroidism or hypercalcemia.
Medical management of primary hyperparathyroidism: proceedings of the fourth international workshop on the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Marcocci C 1, Bollerslev J, Khan AA, Shoback DM J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct;99(10):3607-18
The recommended calcium intake in patients with PHPT should follow guidelines established for all individuals. It is not recommended to limit calcium intake in patients with PHPT who do not undergo surgery. Patients with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be repleted with doses of vitamin D aiming to bring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to ≥ 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) at a minimum, but a goal of ≥75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL) also is reasonable. Pharmacological approaches are available and should be reserved for those patients in whom it is desirable to lower the serum calcium, increase BMD, or both. For the control of hypercalcemia, cinacalcet is the treatment of choice. Cinacalcet reduces serum calcium concentrations to normal in many cases, but has only a modest effect on serum PTH levels. However, bone mineral density (BMD) does not change. To improve BMD, bisphosphonate therapy is recommended. The best evidence is for the use of alendronate, which improves BMD at the lumbar spine without altering the serum calcium concentration. To reduce the serum calcium and improve BMD, combination therapy with both agents is reasonable, but strong evidence for the efficacy of that approach is lacking