Overview of Endocrine Hypertension

ABSTRACT Endocrine hypertension typically is referred to disorders of the adrenal gland including primary aldosteronism, glucocorticoid excess, and the pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma syndromes. Rare conditions in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and glucocorticoid resistance (Chrousos syndrome) can also lead to hypertension. Nonadrenal endocrine disorders, such as growth hormone excess or deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, primary hyperparathyreoidism, testosterone deficiency, […]

Pathophysiology and Treatment of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (PNENS): New Developments

ABSTRACT     Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) are a heterogenous group of relatively rare pancreatic malignancies with a unique biology and pathophysiology. Over the last few years, there have been significant improvements in imaging and treatment strategies, which have led to advances in patient’s management and quality of life (QOL). Yet, in practice, there are […]

An Overview of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis

ABSTRACT   Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GCOP) is the most common cause of iatrogenic osteoporosis (OP). Fractures may occur in 30-50% of patients on chronic GC therapy. Most of the epidemiological data associating fracture risk with GC therapy are from the use of oral GCs. The process of bone remodeling is complex, regulated by an intricate […]

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 4

ABSTRACT   Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 4 (MEN4) (OMIM #610755) has many similarities with MEN1, but is caused by germline mutations in CDKN1B. MEN4 is less common than MEN1. Clinical manifestations of MEN4 encompass: primary hyperparathyroidism, pituitary adenomas. and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. In line with MEN1 other neoplasms may occur.   INTRODUCTION   Multiple Endocrine […]

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2

ABSTRACT   Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) type 2 A and B are rare autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes characterized by tumors of the C cells of the thyroid, of the adrenal medulla, and parathyroid glands. MEN2 is caused by a genetic defect in the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene on chromosome 10 (10q11-2), leading to […]

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

ABSTRACT Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited endocrine tumor predisposition syndrome, caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene. Cardinal manifestations are primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), pituitary adenomas (PA), and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas (PanNET) and duodenum. Other manifestations are NETs of thymus, lung, and stomach, adrenal tumors, and […]

Fungi and Endocrine Dysfunction

ABSTRACT   Fungi are ubiquitous microbes and form a fraction of the symbiotic human microbiome. Transition from normal commensals to opportunistic mycoses can occur in immunocompromised hosts. Endemic mycoses are caused by fungi that are acquired from environmental sources. Fungal infections can be classified based on the depth of tissue invasion. Superficial diseases are limited […]

Stress: Endocrine Physiology and Pathophysiology

ABSTRACT   Stress constitutes a state of threatened homeostasis triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic adverse forces (stressors) and is counteracted by an intricate repertoire of physiologic and behavioral responses aiming to maintain/reestablish the optimal body equilibrium (eustasis). The adaptive stress response depends upon a highly interconnected neuroendocrine, cellular, and molecular infrastructure, i.e. the stress system. […]

Paraneoplastic Syndromes Related to Neuroendocrine Tumors

ABSTRACT   Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare tumors that display marked heterogeneity with varying natural history, biological behavior, response to therapy and prognosis. Their management is complex, particularly as some may be associated with a secretory syndrome, and is undertaken in the context of a multidisciplinary team including a variety of surgical and medical options. […]

The Effect of Endocrine Disorders on Lipids and Lipoproteins

ABSTRACT   Endocrine disorders and the administration of various hormones can alter lipid metabolism and plasma lipid levels, which may increase or decrease the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In many instances the literature is not consistent with various studies reporting different results. These differences may be due to a variety of factors such as […]