Gastrointestinal Disorders in Diabetes

ABSTRACT   Gastrointestinal manifestations of type 1 and 2 diabetes are common and represent a substantial cause of morbidity and health care costs, as well as a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Predominant among them, and most extensively studied, is abnormally delayed gastric emptying or diabetic gastroparesis. Abnormally increased retention of gastric contents may be associated […]

The Role of Exercise in Diabetes

ABSTRACT   Exercise is a key component of lifestyle therapy for prevention and treatment of diabetes. These recommendations are based on positive associations between physical activity and diabetes prevention, treatment, and disease-associated morbidity and mortality. However, there are physiological and behavioral barriers to exercise that people with diabetes must overcome to achieve these benefits. Physiological […]

Nutritional Recommendations for Individuals with Diabetes

The authors are employees of Eli Lilly & Company, and the content of this chapter reflects their own views and training as Registered Dietitian Nutritionists not that of the company.  ABSTRACT   The chapter summarizes current information available from a variety of scientifically based guidelines and resources on nutritional recommendations for adult people with diabetes […]

Diabetes in People Living with HIV

ABSTRACT   People living with HIV (PLWH) are living longer and also have unique risk factors for developing several metabolic diseases, including diabetes. This has been observed in both high income and low to middle income countries. Risk factors for diabetes in PLWH consist of specific antiretroviral therapies (ART), including older generation protease inhibitors and […]

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Overlooked Complication of Type 2 Diabetes

* Denotes equal effort ABSTRACT   Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common complication of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).  Most times it is an unrecognized comorbidity to the primary care provider and endocrinologist. Today it is the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries. It is characterized by insulin resistance […]

Oral and Injectable (Non-insulin) Pharmacological Agents for Type 2 Diabetes

ABSTRACT   While lifestyle changes such as dietary modification and increased physical activity can be very effective in improving glycemic control, over the long-term most individuals with Type 2 diabetes will require medications to achieve glycemic control.The purpose of this chapter is to provide the healthcare practitioner with an overview of the existing oral and […]

Diabetes Mellitus After Solid Organ Transplantation

ABSTRACT Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM), also known as New Onset Diabetes After Transplantation, is a common and important complication following solid organ transplantation.  PTDM may arise from both transplant-related and traditional risk factors and has variably been reported to be associated with decreased patient and graft survival and other adverse outcomes including increased cardiovascular disease […]

Atypical Forms of Diabetes

ABSTRACT   While most patients with diabetes have Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes there are other etiologies of diabetes that occur less frequently. In this chapter we will discuss a number of these less-common causes of diabetes. It is clinically very important to recognize these uncommon causes of diabetes as treatment directed towards the […]

Emergencies in Childhood Diabetes

INTRODUCTION   Diabetes Mellitus, after asthma, is the second most common chronic condition in children.  It can be diagnosed at any age and the incidence has been rising. Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is by far the most common type of diabetes in children and its incidence has been increasing slowly but steadily. By definition T1D […]