Endocrine Changes in Obesity

Abstract   Obesity can be associated with several endocrine alterations arising as a result of changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary hormones axes. These include hypothyroidism, Cushing’s disease, hypogonadism and growth hormone deficiency. Besides its role in energy storage, adipose tissue has many other important functions that can be mediated through hormones or substances synthesized and released […]

Obesity In The Elderly

ABSTRACT   As the proportion of population above age 65 grows, so too increases the prevalence of those individuals who are obese. This phenomenon of an elderly population with obesity is the source of much research and debate with regards to treatment recommendations. It appears that older individuals on the extreme ends of the BMI […]

Pharmacologic Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults

ABSTRACT   Obesity pharmacotherapy has evolved significantly over the past 60 years. Today, six anti-obesity medications (AOMs) are approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the long-term treatment of obesity. Similar in approach to other chronic diseases, AOMs are indicated in combination with lifestyle modification for the management of overweight and obesity. Current guidelines […]

Fungi and Endocrine Dysfunction

ABSTRACT   Fungi are ubiquitous microbes and form a fraction of the symbiotic human microbiome. Transition from normal commensals to opportunistic mycoses can occur in immunocompromised hosts. Endemic mycoses are caused by fungi that are acquired from environmental sources. Fungal infections can be classified based on the depth of tissue invasion. Superficial diseases are limited […]

Exercise Treatment of Obesity

ABSTRACT   Surveillance data from the general US population indicate a continued increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity that is consistent with weight gain trends observed globally among industrialized countries. Physical inactivity and obesity are closely linked conditions and they account for a large burden of chronic disease and impaired function. The underlying […]

Neuroendocrine Control of Body Energy Homeostasis

ABSTRACT   The brain integrates the response to a variety of signals of energy need and availability to match food intake with energy expenditure, thereby maintaining body weight stability. Early work with rodent models with disrupted energy balance (generally obesity) identified many hypothalamic genes and signaling pathways that impact energy homeostasis. More recent studies have […]

Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals

ABSTRACT   Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) impact health and disease. Scientific research conducted over the last few decades has solidified our knowledge of the health impacts of these chemicals. Intrauterine exposure of EDCs can have transgenerational effects, thus laying the foundation for disease in later life, when exposure may not be documentable. The meticulously orchestrated […]

Thin Fat Obesity: The Tropical Phenotype of Obesity

ABSTRACT   Disorders like diabetes and obesity have reached pandemic proportions globally. However, this problem is a little different in some tropical countries especially in the south Asian region. Countries like India and China have the leading number of people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus but paradoxically a much lower number of people with […]

Protozoa and Endocrine Dysfunction

ABSTRACT   Protozoa are parasitic organisms that are among the most important pathogens worldwide. They are classified into four groups and in infected persons, the disease process may be asymptomatic. Of the four groups, Flagellates and Sporozoa are implicated in the causation of endocrine dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities. The disease condition caused by the flagellates […]

Obesity and Dyslipidemia

ABSTRACT   Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are very commonly observed in patients who are obese. Approximately 60-70% of patients with obesity are dyslipidemic. The lipid abnormalities in patients who are obese include elevated serum triglyceride, VLDL, apolipoprotein B, and non-HDL-C levels. The increase in serum triglycerides is due to increased hepatic production of VLDL particles […]