Figure 18. Impact of paternal age on incidence of schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. Increasing paternal age at conception increases the relative risk of having an offspring with schizophrenia (panel A; figure adapted from Malaspina et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Apr;58(4):361-7.) and the odds ratio of having a child with early-onset bipolar disorder (compared to fathers aged 20 to 24 years; panel B; data derived from Frans et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Sep;65(9):1034-40)