Figure 3. Production of bone resorbing substances by neoplasms. Tumor cells may release proteases which can facilitate tumor cell progression through unmineralized matrix. Tumors cells can also release PTHrP, cytokines, eicosanoids and growth factors (eg EGF) which can act on cells of the osteoblastic lineage to increase production of cytokines such as M-CSF and RANKL and to decrease production of OPG. RANKL can bind to its cognate receptor RANK in osteoclastic cells, which are of hepatopoietic origin, and increase production and activation of multinucleated osteoclasts which can resorb mineralized bone.