Figure 3. Genomic and complementary DNA and protein structures of the human (h) GR with its functional distribution, and the isoforms produced through alternative splicing.
The hGR (NR3C1) gene consists of 10 exons. Exon 1 is an untranslated region (UTR), exon 2 encodes for NTD (A/B), exon 3 and 4 for DBD (C), and exons 5-9 for the hinge region (D) and LBD (E). GR does not have an F region in contrast to the other steroid hormone receptors. The GR (NR3C1) gene contains two terminal exons 9 (exon 9 and 9) alternatively spliced to produce the classic GR and the nonligand-binding GR isoform. C-terminal gray-colored domains in GR and GR show their specific portions. Locations of several functional domains are also indicated. AF-1 and -2: activation function-1 and -2; DBD; DNA-binding domain; HD: hinge region; LBD: Ligand-binding domain; NTD: N-terminal domain, NL1 and 2: Nuclear translocation signal 1 and 2.