Figure 2. Depiction of the molecular mechanism involved in the inflammatory processes in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Activation of Th1 lymphocytes by antigen presenting cells produce INF-γ -and IL-2 and 12, which stimulate thyrocytes and retroorbital cells to secrete chemokines (CXCL10, CXCL9, and CXCL11). Chemokines bind and activate the CXCR3 receptor on Th1 cells, further enhancing IFN-γ and ILs secretion. APC, antigen presenting cells; IFΝ-γ, interferon gamma; IL-2, interleukin 2; IL-12, interleukin-12; CXCR3, C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 3.