Figure 1. A simplified representation of the central and peripheral components of the stress system, their functional interrelations and their relationships to other central nervous system (CNS) pathways involved in the stress response. CRH: corticotropin-releasing hormone; LC/NE sympathetic system: locus coeruleus/norepinephrine-sympathetic system; POMC: proopiomelanocortin; AVP: arginine vasopressin; GABA: γ-aminobutyric acid; BZD: benzodiazepine; ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone (corticotrophin); NPY: neuropeptide Y; SP: substance P. Activation is represented by solid green lines and inhibition by dashed red lines.