Figure 1. A simplified representation of the central and peripheral components of the stress system, their functional interrelations and their relationships to other central nervous system pathways involved in the stress response. CRH: corticotropin-releasing hormone, LC/NE sympathetic system: locus ceruleus/norepinephrine-sympathetic system, POMC: proopiomelanocortin, AVP: arginine vasopressin, GABA: γ -aminobutyric acid, BZD: benzodiazepine, ACTH: corticotrophin, NPY: neuropeptide Y, SP: substance P. Activation is represented by solid green lines and inhibition by dashed red lines.