Figure 8. Schematic representation of the interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the reproductive and growth axes. Chronic hyperactivation of the stress system may lead to osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. CRH: corticotropin-releasing hormone, GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone, ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone, LH: luteinizing hormone, FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone, GHRH: growth hormone releasing hormone, STS: somatostatin, GH: growth hormone, SmC: somatomedin C. Activation is represented by solid green lines and inhibition by dashed red lines.