Figure 16. Idealized insulin curves for CSII with either insulin lispro, insulin aspart, or insulin glulisine. Note the basal insulin component can be altered based on changing basal insulin requirements. Typically, insulin rates need to be lowered between midnight and 0400 h (predawn phenomenon) and raised between 0400 h and 0800 h (dawn phenomenon). The basal rate the rest of the day is usually intermediate to the other two. Modern-day pumps can calculate prandial insulin dose by the patient entering the blood glucose concentration and the anticipated amount of carbohydrate to be consumed. The pump calculates how much previous prandial insulin is still active and provides the patient a final suggested dose which the patient may activate or override.