Figure 2: The “lipid overflow h ypothesis”. Pathophysiology of obesity-induced ectopic lipid stores that cause peripheral insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. CPT-1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1; DAG, diacylglycerol; GLUT2, facilitated glucose transporter, member 2 ( SLC2A2 ); HAD, β-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase; IRS1, insulin receptor substrate 1; MafA, pancreatic beta-cell-specific transcriptional activator MafA; PKC, Protein kinase C; Details in the text.