Figure 7. Oxidation of Phospholipid Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Oxidation of phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids present in plasma lipoproteins results in formation of a variety of reactive lipid aldehydes and oxidized phospholipids that convert these lipoproteins to atherogenic particles. Reactive lipid species include malondialdehyde (MDA), isolevuglandins (IsoLG), methyglyoxal (MGO), 4-oxononenal (ONE), and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). Oxidized phospholipids include 1-palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (POVPC), 1-O-alkyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phophorylcholine (azPAF), 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine (KOdiA-PC), 1-palmitoyl-2-F2-isoprostane-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (F2IsoP-PC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-(5,6)-epoxyisoprostane E2-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PEIPC).