Figure 10. The canonical insulin receptor signal transduction network. The two major canonical insulin receptor signaling cascades (PI3K and ERK) are shown. The critical nodes (IR/IRS, PI3K, AKT) are boxed. Crosstalk from IGF-I receptor, cytokine receptors and TNFα is indicated. Negative regulation by PTP1B and PTEN is shown. See text and reference 83 for detailed explanation. From reference 82, used with permission.