figure 14. schematic representation of the central neurocircuitry and its altered activity in acute stress and melancholic depression (chronic hyperactivation of the stress system). hyperfunctioning amygdala, hypofunctioning hippocampus and/or hypofunctioning mesocorticolimbic system (mcls) could be associated with chronic hyperactivation of the pvn crh-avp system and predispose to melancholic depression. pvn: paraventricular nucleus, crh: corticotropin-releasing hormone, avp: arginine vasopressin. stimulation is represented by solid lines and inhibition by dashed lines. stimulation is represented by solid green lines and inhibition by dashed red lines.