Fig. 22A.Overview of the major efferent pathways from the hypothalamus. (A) Connections with the limbic cortex, brainstem, thalamus and septum. A = anterior hypothalamic nucleus; ac = anterior commissure; cc = corpus callosum; CGRF = central grey – reticular formation; Dm = dorsomedial nucleus; dnmt = dorsal nucleus of the mesencephalic tegmentum; E-Wn = nucleus of Edinger-Wepstal; fb = medial forebrain bundle; ep = epithalamus; fld = fasciculus longitudinalis dorsalis (fasciculus of Schutz); fr = fasciculus retroflexus; ha = habenula; HYP = hypothalamus; htt = habenulo-tectal tract; ilm = intermediate-lateral column of the spinal cord; inf = infundibular or arcuate nucleus; mb = mammillary body; MES = mesencephalon; mfb = medial forebrain bundle; MO = medulla oblongata; mteg = mammillo-tegmental tract; mp = mammillary peduncle; mtt = mammillo-thalamic tract; nts = nucleus tractus solitarius; optec = optic tectum; Po = preoptic area; PP = posterior nuclues; Pv = paraventricular nucleus; pvs = periventricular systems; sm = stria medullaris; so = supraoptic nucleus; RF = reticular formation; rn = red nucleus; tec-spt = tectospinal tract; TS = thoracic spine; Vm = ventromedial nucleus. (From Toni R, Malaguti A, Benfenati F, Martini L: The human hypothalamus: a morphofunctional perspective. J Endocrinol Invest 27 (supp to n.6), 73-94, 2004.)