Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut06520,.
The original report from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) changed our understanding of the benefits and risks of hormone therapy. Since that time, reanalysis of the WHI and additional data from other studies have further refined these concepts. Here we provide an update on recent advances in the field. Menopausal hormone therapy continues to have a clinical role in the management of vasomotor symptoms. However, our understanding of the role of hormones in cardiovascular disease and breast cancer continues to evolve. Further analyses of the effect of age and proximity to menopause at the time of initiation of therapy, duration of treatment, dose, route of administration, and the persistence of risks and benefits after stopping hormone therapy are described. In addition, recent data have emerged suggesting that there may be a link between hormone therapy and cancers of the lung and ovary. Finally, we discuss new advances in hormone therapy that will likely lead to a more favorable benefit-to-risk ratio, enabling safer effective menopausal symptom relief.
This is an extensive review of all pros and cons of menopausal hormonal therapy.